Science

Introduction

ATP3 with REGU®-AGE PF eye gel contains a 3% concentration of acetyl tetrapeptide-5 (ATP), a peptide that reduces undereye puffiness due to water accumulation by improving local vascular system circulation. It also interrupts glycation, a degradation process that leads to wrinkles and loss of firmness. 

Mechanism

Collagen and elastin in the dermis support the overall structure of the skin. They are normally linked in a pattern and network that allows them to be repaired. Protein glycation is an irreversible reaction where excess sugar (glucose and fructose) binds to collagen and elastin, adding cross-links to the structure that interfere with the repair and maintenance mechanism. This process also gives rise to the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), leading to various typical signs of aging, such as thinner and wrinkled skin1,2. As it is almost impossible to stop glycation, prevention is the key defence strategy. It is suggested that ATP inhibits glycation by limiting the inactivation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which is one of the proteins involved, thus preventing the rest of the glycation process. This protects the collagen network, leading to the restoring and strengthening of skin collagen integrity3,4,5. On the other hand, loose skin around the eyes as a result of aging allows fat and fluid to accumulate (eyelid edema), forming under-eye bags. ATP also decreases vascular permeability and avoids fluid retention around the eyes, thereby improving local vascular system circulation and alleviates puffy eyebags3,4,6. 

REGU®-AGE PF is a mixture of purified rice and soy peptides, and yeast-derived superoxide dismutase. Studies have shown that rice peptide increases skin elasticity and smoothness by inhibiting the activity of collagen degrading enzymes (e.g., collagenase and elastase)7-9. Soy peptide stimulates the growth of fibroblasts, increasing collagen levels in the skin. Both superoxide dismutase and soy peptide inhibit reactive oxygen species activities (e.g., superoxide ions and peroxide) to improve oxygen supply and microcirculation in the eye area, alleviating puffiness and periorbital hyperpigmentation (dark circles)10-12 

Caffeine is another ingredient incorporated in the formula for alleviating under-eye swelling and dark circles. Its vasoconstriction properties can effectively improve microcirculatory blood flow around the eyes and at the same time provide a warming sensation13-15. 

Formulator’s Notes

The eye gel is formulated with cold emulsification processing using a special emulsifier instead of a wax emulsifier. Heat-sensitive ingredients would not be degraded with this method as it does not require heating. Cold processing is also a greener production method, by which cosmetic ingredients can be emulsified at room temperature, thus reducing energy usage during production. 

To increase the viscosity and improve the overall stability of an emulsion, waxes and gums are often used during conventional emulsification, probably resulting in a heavy and sticky texture. However, with cold processing, the product is given a light and pudding-like texture instead. The soft and silky sensation is further complemented by reducing the amount of rich oil, allowing the product to be quickly absorbed. 

  1. Daniel, S., Reto, M., Fred, Z. and Cosmetics, M.A., 2002. Collagen glycation and skin aging. Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide. 
  2. Danby, F.W., 2010. Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation. Clinics in dermatology, 28(4), pp.409-411. 
  3. Puig, A., Pérez, R., Mangues, M. and Lipotec, S.A., 2006. Eyeseryl® and Leuphasyl®: synthetic peptides as advanced cosmetic actives. Cosmet Sci Technol, pp.164-75. 
  4. Pai, V., Bhandari, P. and Shukla, P., 2017. Topical peptides as cosmeceuticals. Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology, 83(1). 
  5. Zhang, L. and Falla, T.J., 2009. Cosmeceuticals and peptides. Clinics in dermatology, 27(5), pp.485-494. 
  6. Wu, Y., Cao, K., Zhang, W., Zhang, G. and Zhou, M., 2021. Protective and Anti-Aging Effects of 5 Cosmeceutical Peptide Mixtures on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Premature Senescence in Human Skin Fibroblasts. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 34(3), pp.1-9. 
  7. Aguilar-Toalá JE, Hernández-Mendoza A, González-Córdova AF, Vallejo-Cordoba B, Liceaga AM (2019) Potential role of natural bioactive peptides for development of cosmeceutical skin products. Peptides 122:170170. 
  8. Limbert G, Masen MA, Pond D, Graham HK, Sherratt MJ, Jobanputra R, McBride A (2019) Biotribology of the ageing skin—Why we should care. Biotribology 17:75–90 
  9. Hong GP, Min SG, Jo YJ (2019) Anti-oxidative and anti-aging activities of porcine by-product collagen hydrolysates produced by commercial proteases: efect of hydrolysis and ultrafltration. Molecules 24(6):1104. 
  10. Tokudome, Y., Nakamura, K., Kage, M., Todo, H., Sugibayashi, K. and Hashimoto, F., 2012. Effects of soybean peptide and collagen peptide on collagen synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 63(6), pp.689-695. 
  11. Waqas, M.K., Akhtar, N., Mustafa, R., Jamshaid, M., Khan, H.M. and Murtaza, G., 2015. Dermatological and cosmeceutical benefits of Glycine max (soybean) and its active components. Acta Pol Pharm, 72(1), pp.3-11. 
  12. Lods, L.M., Dres, C., Johnson, C., Scholz, D.B. and Brooks, G.J., 2000. The future of enzymes in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science, 22(2), pp.85-94. 
  13. Ahmadraji, F. and Shatalebi, M.A., 2015. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of an eye counter pad containing caffeine and vitamin K in emulsified Emu oil base. Advanced Biomedical Research, 4. 
  14. Amnuaikit, T., Maneenuan, D. and Boonme, P., 2011. Evaluation of caffeine gels on physicochemical characteristics and in vivo efficacy in reducing puffy eyes. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 1(2), p.56. 
  15. Herman, A. and Herman, A.P., 2013. Caffeine’s mechanisms of action and its cosmetic use. Skin pharmacology and physiology, 26(1), pp.8-14.